Somatic gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH) 1 and 2 are found in multiple hematologic and solid tumors, leading to accumulation of the oncometabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2HG competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate–dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and methylcytosine dioxygenases of the TET family, causing epigenetic dysregulation and a block in cellular differentiation. In vitro studies have provided proof of concept for mutant IDH inhibition as a therapeutic approach. We report the discovery and characterization of AG-221, an orally available, selective, potent inhibitor of the mutant IDH2 enzyme. AG-221 suppressed 2HG production and induced cellular differentiation in primary human IDH2 mutation–positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells ex vivo and in xenograft mouse models. AG-221 also provided a statistically significant survival benefit in an aggressive IDH2R140Q-mutant AML xenograft mouse model. These findings supported initiation of the ongoing clinical trials of AG-221 in patients with IDH2 mutation–positive advanced hematologic malignancies.
SIGNIFICANCE: Mutations in IDH1/2 are identified in approximately 20% of patients with AML and contribute to leukemia via a block in hematopoietic cell differentiation. We have shown that the targeted inhibitor AG-221 suppresses the mutant IDH2 enzyme in multiple preclinical models and induces differentiation of malignant blasts, supporting its clinical development. Cancer Discov; 7(5); 1–16. ©2017 AACR.
See related article by Shih et al., p. xxx.
See related commentary by Thomas and Majeti, p. xxx.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Discovery Online (http://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received September 15, 2016.
- Revision received February 8, 2017.
- Accepted February 9, 2017.
- ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.