Table 2.

Fidelity and stability of PDX models

ReferenceTumor typeOriginal tumor-first passageSubsequent passages
(28)CRCConserved histopathology characteristics between donor and PDX models.Stable CNA across passages.
Similarities in CNA between donor and PDX models.
Consistent KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PI3K mutation status.
(29)CRCUnsupervised clustering analysis using aCGH and GE shows that the donor tumors and PDX clustered together.Stable aCGH and GE profile across passages.
203 differentially expressed annotated genes correspond to stroma-related genes and pathways.
(31, 34)HBCConserved IHC expression of ER, PR, and HER2.Stable CNA and GE profile across passages.
Analysis of CNA showed 14/18 paired tumors–PDX shared more than 56% CNA.Variations in stromal related genes.
16/18 paired tumors–PDX clustered together in unsupervised hierarchical analysis.
PDX showed losses in 176 and gains in 202 chromosome regions compared with primary tumors.
Stable GE profile with less than 5% variations.
(30)HBCConserved histopathology characteristics between donor and PDX models.Stable IHC profile over time.
Conserved IHC expression for CK, E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, ER, PR, and HER2.
Unsupervised clustering analysis using GE shows that donor tumors and PDX clustered together.
Maintenance in the pattern of CNA.
Intrinsic breast cancer subtypes concordant between the donor tumors and PDX.
(16)HBCConserved histopathology characteristics between donor and PDX models.Stable histopathologic and IHC expression.
Conserved IHC expression for CK, p53, Ki67, ER, PR, HER2, and EGFR.Stable GE, RPPA, and SNP across passages.
Intrinsic breast cancer subtypes represented in PDX models.
(21)NSCLCConserved histopathologic characteristics between donor and PDX models.
Conserved IHC expression of Ki67 and EpCAM.
Unsupervised clustering analysis using GE shows the donor tumors and PDX clustered together with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.78 to 0.94.
134 differentially expressed genes correspond to cell adhesion and immune response genes and pathways.
(26, 33)PDACConcordance in mutations in KRAS and DPC4.Concordance in gemcitabine response between F3 and F6.
Conserved GE profile (R2 = 0.69).Enrichment in angiogenesis gene signature in F5.
(25)SCC/SCCHNConserved histopathologic characteristics between donor and PDX models.High correlation (R2 ∼ 0.94) in GE from F2-F4.
High correlation (R2 = 0.91) in EGFR expression.Concordance in cetuximab response between F2 and F4.
High correlation (R2 ∼ 0.8) in GE.
Variation in immune-related pathways.
(15)RCCConserved histopathologic characteristics.Conserved histopathologic characteristics.
Donor and PDX models cluster together in unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis using GE.Serial passages clustered together in unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis.
PDX retained CNA from the donor tumor.Maintains CNA of the donor tumor.
Similar mutation landscape in NGS studies.

NOTE: This table summarizes the data from different studies in which PDX models have been compared with donor tumors using a variety of methods.

Abbreviations: aCGH, comparative genomic hybridization array; CRC, colorectal cancer; GE, gene expression; HBC, human breast cancer; IHC, immunohistochemistry; NGS, next-generation sequencing, PR, progesterone receptor; RCC, renal cell cancer; RPPA, reverse phase protein array; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma.