Table 1.

Main characteristics of dietary interventions under clinical investigation

Dietary interventionMetabolic effectsPotential clinical effectsRisks and limitationsOngoing trials
Short-term fasting
  • – Reduced glycemia

  • – Reduced insulinemia

  • – Reduced IGF1

  • – Increased ketones

  • – Reduced side effects from CT

  • – Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  • – Apoptosis induction

  • – Synergistic with CT

  • – Poor tolerability

  • – Weight loss

  • – Increased amino acid concentration

Ketogenic diets
  • – Reduced glycemia

  • – Reduced insulinemia

  • – Increased ketones

  • – Increased IGF1 (if hyperproteic)

  • – Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  • – Apoptosis induction

  • – Synergistic with CT

  • – Poor palatability

FMD
  • – Reduced glycemia

  • – Reduced insulinemia

  • – Reduced IGF1

  • – Increased ketones

  • – Reduced side effects from CT

  • – Apoptosis induction

  • – Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation

  • – Synergistic with CT

  • – Poor palatability

  • – HER2-negative breast tumors (neoadjuvant): NCT02126449

  • Abbreviations: CT, chemotherapy; FMD, fasting-mimicking diet.