Table 1.

Examples of tumor dependencies

 AlterationTumor typeTherapeutic agent
Oncogenes   
Receptor tyrosine kinase   
EGFRMutation/amplification (none)NSCLC, GBM, colorectalGefitinib, erlotinib, cetuximab
KITMutationGIST, acral/mucosal melanomaImatinib, sunitinib
METAmplificationGastric cancerCrizotinib
ALKRearrangementALCL, NSCLCCrizotinib
HER2 (ERBB2)AmplificationBreastTrastuzumab, lapatinib, others in development
Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases   
ABLTranslocationCMLImatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib
JAK2MutationMPDRuxolitinib
Serine/threonine/lipid kinases   
BRAFMutationMelanomaVemurafenib
PIK3CAMutationMultipleMany in development
Hormonal targets   
Estrogen receptorExpressionBreast cancer 
Androgen receptorExpressionProstate cancer 
Metabolic   
AsparagineRequired for cell survivalALLL-asparaginase
Lineage   
MITFAmplificationMelanomaNone
NKX2-1 (TTF1)AmplificationAdenocarcinomaNone
SOX2AmplificationSquamous cell cancerNone
  • Abbreviations: ALCL, anaplastic large cell lymphoma; ALL, acute lymphocytic leukemia; CML, chronic myeloid leukemia; GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; GIST, gastrointestinal stromal tumor; MPD, myeloproliferative disorders; NSCLC, non–small cell lung cancer.