Table 1.

Examples of current and future directions in treatment of unresectable pancreatic cancer

Current chemotherapyPhase III trials either ongoing or data pendingEarly-stage trials/Future directions
FOLFIRINOXGemcitabine ± nab-paclitaxelaCorrelates of gemcitabine response and resistancea
GemcitabineGemcitabine + capecitabineMolecular targets
 ± GV1001 (telomerase peptide vaccine)   KRAS (targeting downstream pathways/synthetic lethals)
     Autophagy
     Hedgehog inhibitors
     Metabolism
     Growth factor receptors
     Vaccines
Gemcitabine + erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor)Gemcitabine ± AMG479 (antibody targeting IGF1R)Biology of circulating tumor cells
Gemcitabine based combinations Molecular imaging
Capecitabine (or 5-FU and leucovorin)  
  • Abbreviations: EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; FOLFIRINOX, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; IGF1R, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.

  • a Studies impacted by this study.