Table 2.

Association of more variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells and shorter telomere length in prostate CAS cells with risk of biochemical recurrence, lethal prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and non–prostate cancer death, HPFSa

Biochemical recurrencebLethal prostate cancerbProstate cancer deathNon–prostate cancer death
More variable length among cancer cellsShorter length in associated stromal cellsMore variable length among cancer cellsShorter length in associated stromal cellsMore variable length among cancer cellsShorter length in associated stromal cellsMore variable length among cancer cellsShorter length in associated stromal cells
Age and year of diagnosis adjusted
 HR (95% CI)1.88 (1.39–2.55)0.92 (0.67–1.26)2.56 (1.50–4.37)1.95 (1.01–3.78)3.07 (1.71–5.51)2.37 (1.11–5.08)1.29 (0.91–1.82)0.73 (0.52–1.02)
Multivariable adjustedc
 HR (95% CI)1.51 (1.11–2.07)0.96 (0.70–1.31)1.64 (0.94–2.86)2.43 (1.24–4.76)1.78 (0.96–3.30)2.94 (1.35–6.39)1.25 (0.88–1.78)0.73 (0.52–1.02)
Additionally mutually adjustedd
 HR (95% CI)1.55 (1.12–2.15)1.10 (0.79–1.54)2.21 (1.24–3.95)3.39 (1.65–6.98)2.39 (1.26–4.51)4.18 (1.8–9.67)1.17 (0.81–1.68)0.76 (0.54–1.08)
  • aAssociations are reported as HR and 95% CI for the following comparisons: more variable (top tertile of variability) in telomere length among prostate cancer cells versus less variable (bottom and middle tertiles), and shorter (shortest and middle tertiles) median telomere length in CAS cells versus longer (longest tertile).

  • bRestricted to men without metastatic prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis.

  • cAdjusted for age (continuous) and year (continuous) of diagnosis, prostatectomy Gleason sum (categorical: ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, ≥8), pathologic TNM stage (categorical ≥T3b), and serum PSA concentration at diagnosis (categorical: <10, 10–20, >20 ng/mL, unknown).

  • dAssociation with more variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells further adjusted for shorter telomere length in prostate CAS cells; association with shorter telomere length in prostate CAS cells further adjusted for more variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells.