Table 2.

Impact of PD-1 blockade on severity of COVID-19 in patients with lung cancers

Patient characteristicsNo prior PD-1 blockade (N = 28) no. (%)Prior PD-1 blockade (N = 41) no. (%)P
 Female20 (71%)16 (39%)0.01
 Male8 (29%)25 (61%)
Age (years)
 <7017 (61%)22 (54%)0.6
 ≥7011 (39%)19 (46%)
Prior smoking history (pack-years)a
 <517 (61%)8 (20%)<0.001
 ≥511 (39%)33 (80%)
Body mass index
 <3017 (61%)29 (71%)0.4
 ≥3011 (39%)12 (29%)
 COPDb3 (11%)9 (22%)0.06
 Non-COPD lung diseasec3 (11%)11 (27%)0.1
 Hypertension12 (43%)26 (63%)0.1
 Congestive heart failured1 (4%)4 (10%)0.6
 Diabetes mellitus5 (18%)16 (39%)0.07
 Metastatic or active lung cancere19 (68%)36 (88%)0.07
 Prior thoracic surgery or radiation therapy13 (46%)19 (46%)1.0
  • Abbreviation: COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NYHA, New York Heart Association (Class III, IV, etc.).

  • aFive pack-years was chosen prospectively as a threshold to differentiate those with minor/no tobacco exposure vs. heavy tobacco exposure.

  • bCOPD was defined as anyone with this diagnosis listed as a part of past medical history plus either an abnormal pulmonary function test interpreted as consistent with COPD or had inhalers for COPD listed in the outpatient medication record. Patients with only radiologic evidence of COPD or a note in the medical record that the diagnosis was in question were not included.

  • cNon-COPD lung disease was defined as underlying lung disease other than COPD (e.g., reactive airways disease, pneumonitis, abnormal pulmonary function test interpreted as underlying lung disease, etc.).

  • dCongestive heart failure was defined as anyone with NYHA functional class I–IV disease.

  • eMetastatic or active lung cancer was defined as patients with metastatic lung cancer or patients undergoing active treatment for lung cancer (e.g., neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy).