Table 1.

Factors associated with receipt of COVID-19 therapy

CharacteristicsHydroxychloroquine & azithromycin, aOR (95% CI)Remdesivir, aOR (95% CI)Any treatment, aOR (95% CI)
Number exposedN = 203aN = 124bN = 865
Agec0.97 (0.85–1.11)0.87 (0.74–1.03)0.96 (1.05–1.14)
Sex
 Male vs. female1.30 (0.95–1.77)1.24 (0.84–1.85)1.28 (1.04–1.56)
Race/ethnicity
 Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white0.73 (0.44–1.20)1.22 (0.71–2.11)0.96 (0.70–1.31)
 Non-Hispanic Black vs. non-Hispanic white0.82 (0.57–1.19)0.56 (0.31–1.00)1.13 (0.87–1.46)
 Other vs. Non-Hispanic white0.65 (0.36–1.16)0.56 (0.26–1.22)1.01 (0.71–1.45)
Region of patient residence
 U.S. Midwest vs. U.S. Northeast0.90 (0.63–1.31)0.79 (0.47–1.33)0.89 (0.70–1.14)
 U.S. South vs. U.S. Northeast1.34 (0.87–2.07)1.03 (0.56–1.90)0.84 (0.61–1.15)
 U.S. West vs. U.S. Northeast0.34 (0.17–0.69)1.85 (1.09–3.15)0.63 (0.45–0.87)
Smoking status
 Current or former smoker vs. never-smoker1.06 (0.77–1.47)0.90 (0.58–1.38)0.99 (0.80–1.24)
Comorbidities
 Obese vs. not obese1.07 (0.77–1.49)1.32 (0.87–2.00)1.44 (1.16–1.80)
 Diabetes mellitus present vs. absent1.16 (0.84–1.61)0.84 (0.55–1.30)0.99 (0.79–1.24)
 Pulmonary comorbidities present vs. absent1.09 (0.76–1.56)1.53 (0.98–2.40)1.41 (1.10–1.80)
 Cardiovascular comorbidities present vs. absent0.68 (0.48–0.98)1.15 (0.74–1.79)0.77 (0.61–0.98)
 Renal comorbidities present vs. absent1.56 (1.09–2.23)0.32 (0.16–0.61)1.02 (0.79–1.33)
 Hypertension present vs. absent1.11 (0.78–1.58)1.31 (0.84–2.04)1.28 (1.02–1.60)
ECOG performance status
 1 vs. 01.07 (0.71–1.63)0.72 (0.43–1.21)1.25 (0.95–1.64)
 2+ vs. 00.77 (0.46–1.28)0.47 (0.24–0.90)0.72 (0.52–1.00)
 Unknown vs. 01.10 (0.71–1.71)1.00 (0.59–1.69)1.10 (0.83–1.47)
Cancer status
 Active, progressing vs. remission/NED0.94 (0.57–1.55)1.03 (0.55–1.93)0.99 (0.71–1.39)
 Active, stable or responding vs. remission/NED0.90 (0.62–1.32)1.18 (0.74–1.88)1.01 (0.79–1.29)
 Unknown vs. remission/NED0.81 (0.48–1.38)0.72 (0.36–1.45)0.98 (0.69–1.39)
Baseline COVID-19 severity
 Moderate vs. mild5.68 (3.66–8.82)9.88 (5.26–18.6)7.53 (5.96–9.53)
 Severe vs. mild6.80 (4.07–11.4)21.2 (10.7–42.0)11.9 (8.60–16.5)
  • aThis includes patients who received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin without any other COVID-19 treatments.

  • bThis includes patients who received remdesivir whether or not they received other COVID-19 treatments.

  • cRisk per decade.