Table 2.

Evaluation of 30-day all-cause mortality associated with hydroxychloroquine exposure, as compared with positive (treated) and negative (untreated) controls using different methodological approaches

Treatment exposureWith PSM, aOR (95% CI)Unmatched, aOR (95% CI)Without severe cases, aOR (95% CI)aHCQ, active cancer only, aOR (95% CI)a
HCQ alone vs. positive control1.03 (0.62–1.73)0.98 (0.59–1.62)1.01 (0.55–1.85)1.05 (0.47–2.35)
HCQ + any other exposure vs. positive control1.99 (1.29–3.08)1.93 (1.27–2.94)2.58 (1.53–4.33)2.44 (1.27–4.69)
HCQ alone vs. negative control1.11 (0.71–1.74)1.27 (0.80–1.99)1.52 (0.90–2.57)1.25 (0.61–2.57)
HCQ + any other exposure vs. negative control2.15 (1.51–3.06)2.50 (1.74–3.59)3.86 (2.50–5.98)2.91 (1.69–4.99)
Positive control vs. negative control1.08 (0.70–1.65)1.30 (0.87–1.94)1.50 (0.92–2.45)1.19 (0.64–2.24)
  • aUnmatched controls.